How to Calculate the PCB Trace Impedance

Introduction Impedance is a combination of resistance and reactance. We all know that resistance is formed because of resistor and the reactance formed due to the reactive elements inductor and capacitor. Resistance is a DC characteristic meanwhile impedance is AC characteristic which means that the frequency is additionally take part…

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Understanding about stack up in PCB

Introduction In modern days the PCBs are getting smaller and the stack up take an important part in it. Before get into designing, the designers and respective manufacturers must consider the layer stack up. By choosing better stack up can improves the signal integrity and avoid manufacturing issues What is…

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Layout guidelines for good Return Path in PCB

Introduction In previous article we have studied about the return path in PCB, but in many conditions we can't avoid some return path discontinuities coming from different factors but we can solve that problems with proper layout design. in this article we will learn about ideas to overcome return path…

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Understanding Return Current Path in PCB

Introduction One of the Most Important Basic aspects of any Electronic Circuit is the current Return path. In any Electronic circuit, the return current path should be obvious. Most of the designers only think about where the signals flow and not concerning about path taken by the return current. Once…

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Fiducial Design Guidelines Every PCB Designer Needs to Know

What are fiducial markers? A Fiducial marker is a rounded shape of copper and it will act as a reference point for pick and place machines during assembly process. These Fiducial PCB markers commonly will help machines to recognize the PCB Orientation and Orientation of surface mount components having packages…

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